cactusinhabitat - logo
Parodia scopa
(Sprengel) N. P. Taylor 1987
Photograph Parodia scopa in habitat

2007, Uruguay, Maldonado

 

Surveys

2007, Uruguay, Maldonado, Piriapolis, A&M 55 Show on map

Preview photo Parodia scopa
01-1560
Preview photo Parodia scopa
02-1573
Preview photo Parodia scopa
03-1575
Preview photo Parodia scopa
04-1514
Preview photo Parodia scopa
05-1559
Preview photo Parodia scopa
06-1540
Preview photo Parodia scopa
07-1541
Preview photo Parodia scopa
08-1557
Preview photo Parodia scopa
09-1550

 

2008, Uruguay, Treinta y Tres, , A&M 294 Show on map

Preview photo Parodia scopa
10-a1436
Preview photo Parodia scopa
11-a1438
Preview photo Parodia scopa
12-a1440
Preview photo Parodia scopa
13-a1453
Preview photo Parodia scopa
14-a1463
Preview photo Parodia scopa
15-a1466
Preview photo Parodia scopa
16-a1471
Preview photo Parodia scopa
17-a1507
Preview photo Parodia scopa
18-a1489
Preview photo Parodia scopa
19-a1493
Preview photo Parodia scopa
20-a1494
Preview photo Parodia scopa
21-a1515
Preview photo Parodia scopa
22-a1479
Preview photo Parodia scopa
23-a1522
Preview photo Parodia scopa
24-a1530
Preview photo Parodia scopa
25-a1525

 

2011, Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, São Gabriel, A&M 787 Show on map

Preview photo Parodia scopa
26-1160584
Preview photo Parodia scopa
27-1160587
Preview photo Parodia scopa
28-1160588
Preview photo Parodia scopa
29-1160590
Preview photo Parodia scopa
30-1160591
Preview photo Parodia scopa
31-1160623
Preview photo Parodia scopa
32-1160611
Preview photo Parodia scopa
33-1160618
Preview photo Parodia scopa
34-1160607
Preview photo Parodia scopa
35-1160635
Preview photo Parodia scopa
36-1160640
Preview photo Parodia scopa
37-1160643
Preview photo Parodia scopa
38-1160646
Preview photo Parodia scopa
39-1160650
Preview photo Parodia scopa
40-1160661
Preview photo Parodia scopa
41-1160663
Preview photo Parodia scopa
42-1160678
Preview photo Parodia scopa
43-1160674
Preview photo Parodia scopa
44-1160688
Preview photo Parodia scopa
45-1160689
Preview photo Parodia scopa
46-1160704
Preview photo Parodia scopa
47-1160709
Preview photo Parodia scopa
48-1160763
Preview photo Parodia scopa
49-1160765
Preview photo Parodia scopa
50-1160766
Preview photo Parodia scopa
51-1160769
Preview photo Parodia scopa
52-1160777
Preview photo Parodia scopa
53-1160779
Preview photo Parodia scopa
54-1160784
Preview photo Parodia scopa
55-1160785
Preview photo Parodia scopa
56-1160799
Preview photo Parodia scopa
57-1160801
Preview photo Parodia scopa
58-1160804

 

2011, Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, Caçapava do Sul, A&M 79 Show on map

Preview photo Parodia scopa
59-1160919
Preview photo Parodia scopa
60-1160916
Preview photo Parodia scopa
61-1160922
Preview photo Parodia scopa
62-1160920
Preview photo Parodia scopa
63-1160875
Preview photo Parodia scopa
64-1160874
Preview photo Parodia scopa
65-1160938
Preview photo Parodia scopa
66-1160961
Preview photo Parodia scopa
67-1160963
Preview photo Parodia scopa
68-1160972
Preview photo Parodia scopa
69-1160973
Preview photo Parodia scopa
70-1160974
Preview photo Parodia scopa
71-1160999
Preview photo Parodia scopa
72-1160991
Preview photo Parodia scopa
73-1160990
Preview photo Parodia scopa
74-1170004
Preview photo Parodia scopa
75-1170014
Preview photo Parodia scopa
76-1170045
Preview photo Parodia scopa
77-1170058
Preview photo Parodia scopa
78-1170051
Preview photo Parodia scopa
79-1170039
Preview photo Parodia scopa
80-1170031
Preview photo Parodia scopa
81-1170043
Preview photo Parodia scopa
82-1170120
Preview photo Parodia scopa
83-1170117

 

2011, Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, Caçapava do Sul, A&M 793 Show on map

Preview photo Parodia scopa
084-1170182
Preview photo Parodia scopa
085-1170191
Preview photo Parodia scopa
086-1170151
Preview photo Parodia scopa
087-1170153
Preview photo Parodia scopa
088-1170155
Preview photo Parodia scopa
089-1170180
Preview photo Parodia scopa
090-1170159
Preview photo Parodia scopa
091-1170157
Preview photo Parodia scopa
092-1170161
Preview photo Parodia scopa
093-1170217
Preview photo Parodia scopa
094-1170206
Preview photo Parodia scopa
095-1170215
Preview photo Parodia scopa
096-1170209
Preview photo Parodia scopa
097-1170213
Preview photo Parodia scopa
098-1170197
Preview photo Parodia scopa
099-1170195
Preview photo Parodia scopa
100-1170226
Preview photo Parodia scopa
101-1170231
Preview photo Parodia scopa
102-1170232
Preview photo Parodia scopa
103-1170247
Preview photo Parodia scopa
104-1170244

 

back to top

Synonyms

Cactus scopa*, Malacocarpus scopa, Notocactus scopa, Parodia rudibuenekeri ssp. glomeratus, Notocactus glomeratus, Notocactus rudibuenekeri, Parodia rudibuenekeri, Parodia scopa ssp. scopa, Parodia scopa ssp. marchesii, Notocactus scopa var. marchesii, Notocactus soldtianus, Parodia succinea, Parodia scopa ssp. succinea, Notocactus succineus,
* Basionym

Distribution

Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay

Conservation status

(4)   Least Concern, LC

Comments

The distinctive characteristics of the populations of Parodia scopa (Sprengel) N. P. Taylor living in the Quebradas of Treinta y Tres Department, in Uruguay, known as Notocactus scopa var. marchesi W. R. Abraham or Parodia scopa ssp. marchesi (W. R. Abraham) Hofacker, consist of a smaller number of ribs (23-28), always within the range of the species (25-40), and whitish central spines (Hunt et al. 2006, text: 223; atlas: 315, pl. 315.1), sometimes yellowish (Gerloff et al. 1995: 78), as confirmed by our investigations (see photo). Even this feature does not appear to be exclusive of populations to Trenta y Tres, since other groups of P. scopa living in Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) are described with white central spines, such as Notocactus scopa var. ramosus (Osten) Backeberg, (white to dark brown) (Gerloff et al. 1995, 79), yellow as Notocactus scopa var. daenikerianus Krainz (from yellow to honey-colored), or like Notocactus scopa var. glauserianus Krainz, from orange to brownish yellow (Backeberg 1966 / en. ed. 1977, 348). For these reasons, besides the fact that no other factor distinguishes it from the other populations of P. scopa, if not a relative geographical isolation (even included in the territorial area of the species), we consider the marchesi form not so defined to assume the rank of species; and we believe that the taxa that have been considered till now at infraspecific level are synonyms of P. scopa
(October 2010)


Parodia scopa (Sprengel) N. P. Taylor is a taxon with numerous and variable populations, but with a rather fragmented distribution. In contrast, the other dominant species of the genus Parodia Spegazzini of the Pampa Biome, i.e. Parodia erinacea (Haworth) N. P. Taylor as we conceived (Anceschi & Magli 2012, 26-33), Parodia mammulosa (Lemaire) N. P. Taylor and Parodia ottonis (Lehmann) N. P. Taylor (whose populations we also refer to in the note on Parodia oxycostata (Buining & Bederoo) Hofacker), in addition to populations numerous and variable in shape, manifest a certain spatial continuity. On the diversity in the spination of the various populations of P. scopa, and on the substantial uniformity of forms of growth, we have already expressed our position in the study on the marchesii populations living in Uruguay, in the quebradas of the Depto of Trenta y Trés (Anceschi and Magli 2010, 28; A&M 294, photos 10-25). A similar situation occurs in Brazil, in the northern part of the range of P. scopa. Among the rocky outcrops (serras and coxilhas) of the Pampa Biome, in the centre-south of the Rio Grande do Sul, below the BR 290, which bisects the state from east to west. Even here, several populations of P. scopa occupy the territory distinguishing themselves essentially only by their spination. In fact, as we will see, in the case of Parodia rudibuenekeri (W. R. Abraham) Hofacker & P. J. Braun, forms and distribution areas are not so distinct. To the southwest of São Gabriel populations of Parodia succinea (F. Ritter) N. P. Taylor are living (A&M 787, photos 26-58), which quietly can be assimilated by the forms with clear spines of P. scopa. In fact, all the characters of the first taxon are included, or merged, with those of the second. In addition, the form of growth is typical of the taxon (A&M 55, photos 01-05; A&M 294, photos 10-25, A&M 787, photos 26-58; A&M 79, photos 59-83; A&M 793, photos 84-104). But while P. succinea is considered, in the latter literature, to be a subspecies of P. scopa (Hunt 1999, 253; Anderson 2001, 552-553; 2005; 2011; Hunt et al., 2006, text: 223), in contrast Parodia rudibuenekeri (W. R. Abraham) Hofacker & P. J. Braun was recognized at the rank of species (Hunt 1999, 252; Anderson 2001, 551, 2005, 2011, Hunt et al., 2006, text: 223). Reto Nyffeler in "Further referrals of 'limbo' species" in CCC 1 (1997, 4: 9), had already correctly identified Notocactus rudibuenekeri W. R. Abraham as a synonym of P. scopa. Then in "Nomenclatural adjustments in Parodia" Hofacker & Braun (1998, 6: 10) published P. rudibuenekeri, which is the text in full:

Parodia rudibuenekeri (Abraham) Hofacker & P. J. Braun comb. nov. Basionym: Notocactus rudibuenekeri Abraham, Succulenta 67 (6): 133-138 (1988). Comment: P. rudibuenekeri and P. scopa grow about 1 km apart at Pedra do Segredo (Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul). It is to be expected that there are points of contact. There are differences in various markings such as spination and flower. No hybrids or intermediates are known. Seed-grown plants always show the distinctive markings of their parents [A.H.].

The two taxa live really very close, in the area of Caçapava do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (BR). Precisely on the rocky outcrops of sandstone conglomerates of the formation Pedra do Segredo. On one of these, the Pedra da Abelha, lives the population of P. rudibuenekeri; while on the surrounding outcrops, including the nearby Pedra do Segredo (about 1.5 km as the crow flies), are living populations of P. scopa. The character that distinguishes the rudibuenekeri population from the scopa populations, is basically the colour of the spines: completely white for the first, with the centrals red-orange for the other. Given the morphological and spatial proximity of the two taxa and, as also Hofacker does not exclude, between the two populations there are points of contact, which we prefer to define as melting points. During the last surveys in the area (2011), we found, in discrete areas of the habitat, populations where there are the two forms. At the Pedra do Leão, another of the outcrops of the formation, in the same population (A&M 79, photos 50-74) coexist: Individuals with 4 central spines variegated in reddish yellow, and all radial white (photos 50-53), individuals with all white spines (photos 59-61), individuals with central spines orange-red and white radials (photos 62-65), and groups where individuals with completely white spines and others with red orange centrals (photo 69-70) co-exist side by side. It should be noted that even among the individuals of the Pedra da Abelha (rudibuenekeri population), can be observed central spines variegated in reddish yellow (A&M 793, photo 94), as between those of Pedra do Leão (photo 52). As pointed out for P. succinea, also P. rudibuenekeri shows the typical growth form of the stems of P. scopa. Regarding Hofacker‘s assertion "Seed-grown plants always show the distinctive markings of their parents", we emphasize that phyletic distinctions on such similar taxa, based on morphological features of a few pot-grown plants, are likely to bring us back to a typological, and not biological, concept of species. Following the foregoing, as the populations of marchesii from Uruguay, also P. succinea and P. rudibuenekeri are to be considered populations, with clear spines, not taxonomically distinguishable in the range of P. scopa. We recall that the other taxon connected by the recent literature (Hunt 1999, 253; Anderson 2001, 552-553; 2005; 2011, Hunt et al., 2006, text: 223) to P. scopa, always following a Hofacker‘s proposal (1998, 6: 10), namely Parodia scopa ssp. neobuenekeri (F. Ritter) Hofacker & P. J. Braun, is instead the only one that clearly shows that it does not belong to this phyletic line, i.e. because of the distinct form of growth. Smaller stems and more compact with each other, forming large groups (A&M 261, photo 1-14; A&M 796, photo 15-28). For this reason, we recognize it at the species level in the genus Parodia Spegazzini, Parodia neobuenekeri (F. Ritter) Anceschi & Magli (Anceschi & Magli 2010, 33), the taxon living between Minas de Camaquã and Santana da Boavista. (June 2013)

Genus

Parodia

Other species

alacriportana
allosiphon
arnostiana
aureicentra
buiningii
calvescens
carambeiensis
chrysacanthion
claviceps
columnaris
commutans
concinna
crassigibba
erinacea
fusca
haselbergii
herteri
horrida
horstii
langsdorfii
lenninghausii
linkii
maassii
magnifica
maldonadensis
mammulosa
microsperma
mueller-melchersii
muricata
neobuenekeri
neohorstii
nigrispina
nivosa
nothorauschii
otaviana
ottonis
oxycostata
penicillata
rechensis
ritteri
schumanniana
scopa
stockingeri
stuemeri
subterranea
tenuicylindrica
warasii
werdermanniana